‘The Cloud’ and What it Means for Wireless Technology

Cloud

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The cloud is an all-encompassing thing that’s actually been around for a while (e.g. distributed computing, Network Attached Storage). Most of it exists today in the enterprise but is being pushed to the Internet and rebranded “The Cloud.” This affects three wireless networking segments: consumers (e.g., you, me, mom, dad), Internet providers (e.g., mobile operators, ILECs, CLECs) and wireless solutions vendors (e.g., Symmetricom, Aviat Networks).

For consumers, it represents the ability to store information—pictures, music, movies—virtually and access them wherever we go from devices of our choice. No longer do we have to worry about backing up smartphones, tablets or laptops. The downside is that this magic is going on in the background all while your data caps are being reached. So, watch out….

On the mobile operator side, this will represent a substantial increase in bandwidth used. In addition, bandwidth usage starts to become more symmetrical as more uplink bandwidth is utilized while uploading to the cloud. This also means more frequency consumption on the RAN-side as subscribers stay “on” more often. Operators need to figure how to get users off the air interface as quickly as possible. This calls for greater throughput and potentially much lower latency. Trickling data to end users compounds the air interface problem. For the most part, subscribers won’t realize what’s happening and data caps are more likely to be reached. This translates into either more revenue and/or dissatisfied customers. Clearly, operators must monetize transport more effectively and at the same time provide more bandwidth.

Lastly, for wireless solutions vendors this translates into increased sales of wireless equipment to ease the sharp increase in bandwidth consumption. This also translates into more intelligent and robust network designs (e.g., physical and logical meshes, fine-grained QoS controls) as subscribers rely more on network access for day-to-day activities. As for the cloud in general and the overall effect:

  • Traffic starts to become more and more symmetrical (i.e., photos and videos automatically upload and then downloaded to all individual peer devices (e.g., your iPhone video uploads to the cloud and then syncs to your laptop and iPad)
  • Lots more bandwidth will be used. Today, content drives bandwidth demand (e.g., you open a browser and connect to a website, you launch your Facebook mobile app and upload photos). Tomorrow, those activities will happen automatically and continuously
  • Over the Air (OTA) updates to the phone are now downloaded over Wi-Fi or 3G/4G networks. Seemingly, updates are the only things that have changed, but it still amounts to about 150 MB per phone per update—another bandwidth driver
  • More prevalent use of video conferencing—low latency, sustained bandwidth demand

Therefore, the amount of bandwidth consumption will rise dramatically this September when Apple releases iOS 5 and iCloud. Android has already driven much bandwidth demand, but it’s not nearly as “sexy” as what Apple is releasing for its 220 million users—or alternately total iOS devices: iPod touch, iPad, iPhone). It’s more than just bandwidth—it’s quality, reliable bandwidth where QoS and Adaptive Modulation will play significant roles—of this, I’m certain.

At a recent TNMO event they were talking about LTE-Advanced and leveraging the cloud for virtual hard drives. Imagine, no physical hard drive in your computer. Laptops are connected via 4G wireless/5G LTE wireless to a cloud-based hard drive, equating to lots and lots of bandwidth plus stringent latency requirements….

Steve Loebrich
Director of Product and Solutions Marketing, Aviat Networks

Managing Wireless Networks with Element Management Systems

Management of Complexity

An EMS can be thought of as managing all the elements in a complex network, keeping them all in balance. Image by michael.heiss via Flickr

Managing a wireless network is essential. Radios, routers and third-party add-ons control vast amounts of valuable user data. Any wireless network downtime damages the user’s business and the operator’s long-term reputation. Thus, operators need a powerful but easy-to-use element management system (EMS) to monitor and administer all the disparate elements in their wireless communication networks.

Also, operators should be able to manage complete networks from a user-friendly interface, which must provide all the necessary information for fast network management system decision-making. And this system must be capable of complete standalone operation or being integrated into an operational support system using NorthBound Interfaces (NBIs).

Other additional functionality in the form of event management and notifications capability is also necessary in an EMS for wireless networks. An EMS should inform wireless operators about network events and device failures and let them to diagnose problems and apply network updates remotely. This reduces the time between a fault occurring and the fault being repaired. It may even allow a repair to be completed before a wireless link fails completely. For day-to-day management, operators need an EMS that can:

  • Deploy, manage and auto-discover wireless equipment—including all Aviat Networks devices, partner products and third-party devices
  • Display an entire network at once, via one of several map views
  • Provide an overview of network events
  • Deliver notifications of important network events
  • Enable analysis of network events, device events and performance data
  • Generate detailed reports on all aspects of a network
ProVision Screen Shot

The ProVision EMS solution can manage all Aviat Networks wireless solutions, partner wireless equipment and third-party devices from a user-friendly GUI.

Fortunately, such a carrier-class EMS solution does exist. Aviat Networks develops its ProVision EMS based on customer demand and continues to upgrade it as per user requests and requirements. For customers, implementing ProVision is vastly more efficient than developing an in-house EMS, saving time, resources and money. Aviat Networks EMS solutions are the most cost-effective way to manage wireless solutions. Aviat Networks works closely with customers to make sure that ProVision is user-friendly. The goal is that ProVision EMS allows operators to manage their networks proactively—rather than reactively—and with reduced network operating costs.

Look for future blog posts on must-have EMS data features and stats on operators using carrier-class EMS.

Mick Morrow
Sr. Product Marketing Manager, Aviat Networks

Evolution of Microwave: History of Wireless Communications

The Microwave Sky

This image of microwave energy in a "total sky" picture of the known universe shows it's everywhere in primordial space, more than 13 billion years ago.

Microwaves are as old as the beginning of the universe. Well, they’ve been around for at least 13.7 billion years—very close to the total time since the Big Bang, some 14 billion years ago. However, we don’t want to go that far back in covering the history of microwave communications.

Having just observed the 155th anniversary of the birth of Nikola Tesla, arguably the most important inventor involved in radio and wireless communications, this is a good time to take a broader view of the wireless industry. If you have been in the wireless transmission field for some time, you are probably familiar with Dick Laine, Aviat Networks‘ principal engineer. He has taught a wireless transmission course for many years—for Aviat Networks and its predecessor companies.

The embedded presentation below comes from one of those courses. In a technological field filled with such well-educated scientists and engineers from some of the finest universities and colleges, it’s hard to believe that microwave solutions and radio itself started in so much controversy by men who were in many cases self-taught. Dick’s presentation goes over all of this in a bit more detail. Hopefully, it’s enough to whet your appetite to find out more. If you like the presentation, consider hearing it live or another lecture series on wireless transmission engineering at one of our open enrollment training courses.

Hybrid Microwave for Wireless Network Backhaul Evolution

Microwave telecommunications tower, silhouette...

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There is no one-size-fits-all solution for wireless network backhaul. What will work for some operators’ mobile backhaul will not work for others. Many operators have large installed bases of TDM infrastructure, and it is too cost prohibitive to uninstall them wholesale and jump directly to a full IP mobile backhaul. There is going to be a transition period.

The transition period will need a different breed of wireless solutions. Fourth Generation Hybrid or Dual Ethernet/TDM microwave radio systems provide comprehensive transmission of both native TDM and native Ethernet/IP traffic for smooth evolution of transmission networks. They will enable the introduction of next-generation IP-based services during this transition period.

We will explore this category of digital microwave technology for wireless backhaul, which is becoming ever more important as the 4G LTE wireless revolution gets underway with all due earnestness, even while the current 3G—and even 2G—networks continue to carry traffic for the foreseeable future.

Our current white paper builds on Aviat Networks‘ previous April 2010 white paper titled “What is Packet Microwave?” and provides market data from recent industry analyst reports that demonstrate the significant and continuing role of TDM in mobile backhaul networks and some of the prevailing concerns of operators in introducing Ethernet/IP backhaul services.

Homage to Nikola Tesla, Great Inventor of Wireless Technology

The photograph image of Nikola Tesla (1856-194...

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It is with great pleasure that I share with all of you my humble and most sincere homage to Nikola Tesla, the genius and pioneer in what today is our job and passion, wireless communications.

This week of July 10, we are celebrating the 155th anniversary of the birth of Tesla, one of the most important inventors in history. Tesla mastered disciplines such as physics, mathematics and electricity and is considered the father of the alternating current and founder of the electrical industry. His most famous invention was the eponymous Tesla coil, which was a source of electromagnetic energy in early wireless telegraphy systems up until the 1920s.

Among his most important inventions were the radio, the coils for the alternating current electrical generator, the (electrical) induction motor, the sparking bulb, the alternator and the remote control. However, few of these machines were acknowledged as invented by Tesla. In spite of having an amazing mind, being a visionary as well as an intelligent man as few are, he was a mysterious and obscure character, controversial and incapable of obtaining any benefit from his inventions and even saw another man receive the Nobel Prize for one of his own inventions.

People associated him with strange experiments, secret weapons and unrealizable theories that exceeded the utopian and even bordered on insanity. Besides electromagnetism and electrical engineering, Tesla’s work comprises multiple disciplines such as robotics, ballistics, mechanics, computer science and nuclear and theoretical physics, which allowed him to even question some of Albert Einstein’s theories

Although Tesla was not well known, his practical and functional inventions are the source of technologically advanced civilization in such an elemental way that it was said Tesla was the one who invented the 20th century.

Brief Nikola Tesla biography

Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 to January 7, 1943) born in Similjan, what at that time was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which today is part of Croatia. A genius since his early years as a student who was passionate about mathematics and science, he was able to memorize complete books and make complex mathematical calculations to the embarrassment of his professors.

His father, who was an Orthodox pastor, pushed him to follow his religious vocation, but Tesla was more motivated by his mother’s instinct of development, which led her to invent gadgets such as the mechanical egg mixer to help her with house chores. Tesla studied mechanical and electrical engineering in Austria and physics in what would become Czechoslovakia and worked in several electricity and telephone companies throughout Europe.

It is important that I highlight an extra aspect related to free energy. Tesla was a genius who thought that energy should be free of charge, which is why many of his inventions were never to acquire this benefit. Unfortunately, his viewpoint made many important men of the day into his mortal enemies, such as Thomas Alva Edison and George Westinghouse, among others.

Tesla was a great human being with a unique strength of character—to such an extent that he endured with great stoicism when Guglielmo Marconi obtained the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics using Tesla’s radio patents.

Dear colleagues, as a last tribute to Tesla, let me ask you to take a moment of your time to surf the web and read the great amount of information available about him. Enjoy it and share it, and let’s make that our best tribute to this great inventor who left us not only his teachings about technology but also a message of humbleness.

Thanks for sharing this homage.

Emanuel Jaralampidis
Sales Support Engineer, Aviat Networks

Feds Update Spectrum Release to Relieve Wireless Congestion

Photo of HTC Mogul smartphone

Smartphones such as the HTC Mogul are driving the demand for more wireless spectrum to be released.

To help relieve wireless network congestion, the Obama Administration made a commitment to release up to 500 MHz of spectrum for reuse in commercial wireless solutions. In April 2011, the NTIA updated the progress toward this commitment in its first interim report. This 500 MHz of spectrumcomprising 280 MHz of underused commercial spectrum and 220 MHz of federally owned radio spectrum now administered by the NTIAwould help ease the growing shortage of spectrum as demands on the wireless network rise. This demand is primarily fueled by the explosive adoption rate of smartphones and other mobile broadband devices and the corresponding infrastructure—both access and mobile backhaul—required to support their use.

The timescales and conditions for the availability of this spectrum is in the hands of the FCC and is expected to take about five years as the first part of its 10 year plan. However, the first four blocks of spectrum have recently been identified for release by the NTIA at 1675-1710 MHz, 1755-1780 MHz, 3500-3650 MHz, 4200-4220 MHz and 4380-4400 MHz.

It is estimated that an auction of 500 MHz of spectrum could raise more than $20 billion for the U.S Treasury.

Many wireless technology industry commentators expect the lower bands to be taken up for wireless access. But the higher three bands could be allocated for mobile backhaul use to begin the process of easing congestion in the current 6GHz bands.

The microwave backhaul industry welcomes this first step. We look forward to follow through on further spectrum releasesespecially in the 4 to 8GHz range—which is suitable for high-capacity trunking backhaul.

Ian Marshall
Regulatory Manager, Aviat Networks

Backhaul for the Mobile Broadband or Wireless Broadband Network

iPad con dock y teclado inalámbrico

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As 2G and 3G networks enter the upgrade path to 4G wireless, it will require that more than the base stations receive new wireless solutions. The path to LTE wireless—odds-on favorite to be the dominant 4G technology—is paved with increasing data demand from smartphones, iPads, other tablet PCs, electronic readers and probably some other intelligent mobile computing devices yet to be imagined.

All these devices will place throughput demands on the base stations, which in turn will place greater demands on the mobile backhaul network. Even as 4G devices place demands on mobile backhaul, the 2G and 3G technologies will be in place for sometime, coexisting in the same networks with 4G. In these situations, IP/Ethernet will be the next-generation networks‘ transport technology of choice. Continue reading

Antennas: Why Size is Important for This Wireless Equipment

Antenna tower supporting several antennas. The...

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In response to the recent FCC docket 10-153, many stakeholders proposed relaxing antennas requirements so as to allow the use of smaller antennas in certain circumstances. This is an increasingly important issue as tower rental costs can be as high as 62 percent of the total cost of ownership for a microwave solutions link. As these costs are directly related to antenna size, reducing antenna size leads to a significant reduction in the cost of ownership for microwave equipment links.

The Fixed Wireless Communications Coalition (FWCC), of which Aviat Networks is a major contributor, proposed a possible compromise that would leave Category A standards unchanged while relaxing Category B standards. The latter are less demanding than Category A, and after some further easing, might allow significantly smaller antennas. The rules should permit the use of these smaller antennas where congestion is not a problem, and require upgrades to better antennas where necessary.

A further detailed proposal from Comsearch proposed a new antenna category known as B2, which would lead to a reduction in antenna size of up to 50 percent in some frequency bands. This would be a significant cost saving for link operators.

At the present time, the industry is waiting for the FCC to deliberate on the responses to its 10-153 docket, including those on reducing antenna size.

See the briefing paper below for more information.

Ian Marshall
Regulatory Manager, Aviat Networks

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